Maphrian


Maphrian

Maphrian, auch: „Metropolit“, „Katholikos“ des Ostens, ist der Titel des Oberhaupts der syrisch-orthodoxen, „jakobitischen“ Kirche im Gebiet des (ehemaligen) Perserreichs der Sasaniden. Die „anti-nestorianische“ Kirche der Jakobiten war dabei in Mesopotamien (Irak) hauptsächlich in der Gegend um Tikrit und Mossul vertreten.

Organisatorisch gab es zunächst, d.h. bis ins 7. Jahrhundert, eine Trennung zwischen dem westlichen und östlichen Teil der syrisch-orthodoxen Kirche gemäß dem Gegeneinander von oströmischem Reich und Perserreich. Erst die arabische Eroberung von Palästina und Mesopotamien (630er-Jahre) führten die Jakobiten auf Grund ihrer monophysitischen bzw. diplophysitischen Anschauungen zur Christuslehre zusammen, der Maphrian wurde zum Stellvertreter des westlichen Patriarchen für den Osten. Er sollte von den östlichen Bischöfen gewählt werden, aber aus dem Westen stammen.

Residenz des Maphrians war bis 1089 Tikrit, danach Mossul, schließlich das Kloster Mar Mattai (bei Mossul).

Ein bedeutender Maphrian war: Gregorius Bar-Hebraeus (1264-1286).

Literatur

  • Klein, Wassilios (Hg.), Syrische Kirchenväter (= Urban Tb 587), Stuttgart 2004, S.243ff

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